Paraphrasing: “Chapter 9: Wars and Survival”
Throughout the 1860s and 1870s desperation for British sovereignty had caused the Crown and settlers to rage war on Maori (A.Anderson.249). Begining in 1860 with the war in Pekapeka, Taranaki over disrespect to Maori authority over this land (Anderson, 250). Land was sought after for the political status gained by the british upon seizing it (Anderson, 252). Full blown wars toke place in both Taranaki and Waikato region over land dispute. The maori saw this as an invasion. When british troupes crossed the Mangatawhiri river, Maori described it as “cutting the land’s backbone” (Anderson. 254). Tribes from all over New Zealand joined forces to fight these wars and provide supplies for troupes, whilst other Maori made allies with the british forces (Anderson, 259-266). One harsh technique taken to destruct maori homes and cultivations were deliberate bush fires (Anderson,266). In 1868 Te Kooti Arikirangi Te turuki made a famous escape from the Chatham Island to spread a war through central North island (Anderson,269). Eventually, these and many wars ceased around 1872 but many losses had been made and a new attitude towards Maori was taking place (Anderson, 275).
Some key things arrose in Dick Whyte’s lecture last thursday, and are as follows.
In terms of maps, they are importantly representations of the land rather than accurate replications. This makes maps a powerful visual communicator as they are what people rely on to navigate themselves and their ideas in terms of a place. Visual features such as blank spaces and european renaming reflect an exclusion of Maori principles, failing to acknowledge their nomadic intentions and showing disrespect to their language. The mapping of New Zealand recognised the land as a country thereby enabling the imposition of more european constructs in order to extend their empire.
A country, for the europeans, translated to a unified people, thereby nationalism was born with the effective symbol : the flag. What nationalism seized to honor was the importance of differentiation between tribes and iwis. Although, originally the cheifs designed the flag – “United tribes flag”, years later it was underminded and replaced by a new flag. The new flag shows deliberate exculsion of Maori – undermining their strong request to not have the union jack on the flag and using a blue to dominate the red, which effectively portrayed the controlling intentions of the europeans over the indigenous maori.
Anderson, Atholl, Binney, Judith and Harris, Aroha. “Chapter 9: Wars and survival”. Tangata whenua: An illustrated history. Print. 2014
Whyte, Dick. “Te Huringa.” Massey University Lecture. Coca, Wellington. 19 Aug. 2016. Lecture.